• Home page
 • Resumé
 • Publications

Distribution maps
 • Granite-tempered ware
 • Cam. 262 / le type Besançon

 • All sites
 • Concordance with Ferdière 1972
 • Source of illustrations

 • TF1 - Granite-tempered
 • [Sample thin section]
 • [Hi-res (DjVu) image]
 • TF2 - `Standard fabric`

Camulodunum type 262, le type Besançon and Central Gaulish granite-tempered ware

previous next
Site name Levroux
location FR 36-Indre
Typology Class 1 Cam 262
Description The site of Levroux is one of the better known, or at least better publicised, Late Iron Age sites in Central France (see summary by Collis 1975, 194). The earlier settlement is in the valley at the Arènes site, but this is succeeded by the hill-top murus Gallicus site -- referred to as `la colline' in the literature. The assemblage from Arènes includes a number of Dressel 1a, and a few sherds of Campanian ware. There are Dressel 1b from `la colline' and occupation probably continues up to at least the end of the first century BC. Ferdière records le type Besançon from Levroux in his 1972 catalogue (Ferdière 1972, 80, site. 9).

The coarse ware jars from the Arènes site are very distinctive. Some have light mouldings on the inner face of the rim, but do not match the typology of the TF1 series in detail, but their fabric is particularly characteristic -- it is hand-made, dark brown or orange-brown and usually with a black slip over the rim and shoulder. This ware is abundantly tempered with white-mica and contains large rock-fragments In thin-section the latter have been identified as schists. This is clearly not TF1, nor related in any way. The `fresh' appearance of the schist fragments may suggest that they were not been transported far from their source -- an origin to the south, in the Massif Central, may be provisionally suggested. Further investigation of this ware will certainly be of value, concentrating on the determination of its source, distribution and date.

Moulded-rim jars occur in small numbers at `la colline'. A few, principally the larger jars of class 1 are in TF1, but the majority, which match the form of Cam.262, are in a different fabric

Another aspect of the Levroux ceramics is reported by Coulon and Odiot (1980) in their study of the material from the kilns at Villedieu-sur-Indre, some 30km to the south-east. They investigate the relationship between the clays employed for pottery and kiln construction and the geological deposits in the immediate area of the site, concluding that the pottery is manufactured from two different local clays. One of these, class A (derived from the recent alluvium of the Indre), is apparently present at Levroux where it comprises 5% of the assemblage (ibid., 92 - It is not clear whether this value describes at the Arènes or `la colline', or both).

The exact associations and chronology of the moulded-rim jars must await the final publication of the finds from these sites but the sequence of developments relevant to the history of TF1 can be summarised as follows:

  • There is no evidence of TF1 at the earlier Arènes site but one of the principal wares may originate to the south.

  • There are a few examples of TF1 from the `la colline' but the majority of vessels assigned to le type Besançon are not TF1.

Ferdière 1972 Site 9
Bibliography Ferdière 1972, site 9
Adam 1979, 18, Pl.2,17
Buchsenschutz et al 1988
Fabrics(s) TF1 Granite tempered - from visual examination
Show more details of these thin sections
TS ID Image form petrology
161 Sherd TFB161
164 Sherds TFB161
165 Sherds TFB161
166 Sherds TFB161
Location map : Levroux
Original text from Ferdière and Ferdière 1972
 • Url: • Author: • Last updated: 29 July, 2004 •